Photovoltaic thermal hybrid solar collector pdf Fraser

photovoltaic thermal hybrid solar collector pdf

MULTI-SOURCE HEAT PUMP COUPLED WITH A PHOTOVOLTAIC THERMAL ENGIN and C˘OLAK/Turk J Elec Eng & Comp Sci_ Figure 1. ASITHRU-30-SG semitransparent solar cell. 3.2. Thermal collector The thermal collector used in the hybrid system is an active system which uses a 3-speed control pump to

Hybrid Photovoltaic-Thermal Collectors A Review.

Investigation of Solar Hybrid Electric/Thermal System with. An Evacuated PV/Thermal Hybrid Collector with the Tube/XCPC design Lun Jiang Chuanjin Lan Yong Sin Kim yma5@ucmerced.edu rwinston@ucmerced.edu ABSTRACT The current challenge for PV/Thermal (PV/T) systems is the reduction of radiation heat loss. Compared to solar thermal selective coating, the solar cells cannot be used as an efficient thermal absorber due to their large …, Due to the lack of PV/T norms, the PV/T collector testing standards as well as PV/T theory are adapted from solar thermal collectors, mainly Hotel-Whillier-Bliss [5] and Florschuetz [6], and diode.

Abstract. This paper describes the development of a new type hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PVT) solar collector. The test setup of the photovoltaic/thermal performance of the PVT solar collector filled with graphite was established to compare the conventional PV module and the PVT solar collector filled with graphite. 156 Shigeki Hirasawa et al.: Thermal Performance and Cost to Produce 90°C-Hot Water of Solar Thermal Collector and Hybrid Photovoltaic Thermal (PVT) Collector Systems

Hybrid solar system Photovoltaic/thermal collector Energy conversion Exergy analysis Technology review abstract A significant amount of research and development work on the photovoltaic/thermal (PVT) technology has been done since the 1970s. Many innovative systems and products have been put forward and their quality evaluated by academics and professionals. A range of theoretical models … Solar energy can be converted directly into electric and thermal energy through photovoltaic cells and thermal collectors, respectively. However this conversion, in particular the photovoltaic, has a reduced efficiency. A solution proposed to increase this efficiency is with the hybrid solar

A PVT system includes a solar thermal collector (as shown above) that mounts underneath a photovoltaic panel. A typical PV cell has an efficiency of 15% under ideal conditions. PV spectrum: Crisostomo et. al, Beam splitting system for the development of a concentrating linear Fresnel solar hybrid PV/T collector, in ASME 2013 Summer Heat Transfer

This Paper Present a review of the literature available during the last decade on the PV/Thermal collector. The paper is The paper is presented in a way so as to cover the comparison of different types of collector on the basis of their Electrical as well as Thermal parameters. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Photovoltaic thermal hybrid systems, sometimes referred to as Hybrid PV/T systems, or PVT are systems that convert solar radiation into thermal …

Renewable Energy 32 (2007) 2223–2241 Energy and exergy efficiencies of a hybrid photovoltaic–thermal (PV/T) air collector Anand S. Joshi , Arvind Tiwari provides a lot of thermal energy. Hybrid collector E-PVT2,0 is a technological progress in increasing efficiency of photovoltaic modules with a simultaneous exchange of a solar energy into thermal and electric energy. Advantages of a hybrid collector E-PVT2,0: - higher efficiency of production of electric energy in comparison to standard photovoltaic modules. - thermal part of a collector is

This Paper Present a review of the literature available during the last decade on the PV/Thermal collector. The paper is The paper is presented in a way so as to cover the comparison of different types of collector on the basis of their Electrical as well as Thermal parameters. A PVT system includes a solar thermal collector (as shown above) that mounts underneath a photovoltaic panel. A typical PV cell has an efficiency of 15% under ideal conditions.

This Paper Present a review of the literature available during the last decade on the PV/Thermal collector. The paper is The paper is presented in a way so as to cover the comparison of different types of collector on the basis of their Electrical as well as Thermal parameters. Abstract. The market of solar thermal and photovoltaic electricity generation is growing rapidly. New ideas on hybrid solar technology evolve for a wide range of applications, such as in buildings, processing plants, and agriculture.

The system is a hybrid system in that solar energy can be converted to (a) electrical energy by utilizing photo- voltaic devices and (b) thermal energy which in turn can be ENGIN and C˘OLAK/Turk J Elec Eng & Comp Sci_ Figure 1. ASITHRU-30-SG semitransparent solar cell. 3.2. Thermal collector The thermal collector used in the hybrid system is an active system which uses a 3-speed control pump to

Abstract. This paper describes the development of a new type hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PVT) solar collector. The test setup of the photovoltaic/thermal performance of the PVT solar collector filled with graphite was established to compare the conventional PV module and the PVT solar collector filled with graphite. Abstract. The market of solar thermal and photovoltaic electricity generation is growing rapidly. New ideas on hybrid solar technology evolve for a wide range of applications, such as in buildings, processing plants, and agriculture.

This Paper Present a review of the literature available during the last decade on the PV/Thermal collector. The paper is The paper is presented in a way so as to cover the comparison of different types of collector on the basis of their Electrical as well as Thermal parameters. Performance of a Solar Heating System with Photovoltaic Thermal Hybrid Collectors and Heat Pump. Research output: Research - peer-review › Article in proceedings – Annual report year: 2017

EVALUATION OF FLAT-PLATE PHOTOVOLTAIC/THERMAL HYBRID

photovoltaic thermal hybrid solar collector pdf

Hybrid Photovoltaic/Thermal Collectors cut.ac.cy. Photovoltaic solar panel for a hybrid PV/thermal system 2004-05-01 00:00:00 The hybrid PV–thermal system was studied, with the photovoltaic panel (PVP) area much smaller than that of the solar collector., A hybrid solar collector was designed to investigate the effects of combining two different solar collector techniques on the overall collector’s effectiveness. While most solar collectors focus only on one solar collection method, the small hybrid system uses a flat plate collector in conjunction.

Hybrid Thermal and Photovoltaic Concentration Collector. In this study, different combinations of a photovoltaic thermal hybrid solar collector (PVT) and a multi-source heat pump for space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) production have been inves - …, Performance of a Solar Heating System with Photovoltaic Thermal Hybrid Collectors and Heat Pump. Research output: Research - peer-review › Article in proceedings – Annual report year: 2017.

Energy and Exergy Analysis of a Photovoltaic-Thermal

photovoltaic thermal hybrid solar collector pdf

Design and Experimental Validation of a Photovoltaic. APPLICATION ASPECTS OF HYBRID PV/T SOLAR SYSTEMS 1 Y. Tripanagnostopoulos and 2 M. Souliotis Physics Department, University of Patras, Patras 26500, Greece A solar photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) hybrid system is a combination of solar photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal systems which simultaneously convert solar energy into electricity and heat from one integrated system. There are different approaches in PV/T system designing. The design parameters are based on collector type, thermal efficiency, electrical efficiency, solar fraction and operating.

photovoltaic thermal hybrid solar collector pdf


to produce hybrid PV-thermal (PV-T) collectors. These can deliver both heat and electricity simultaneously from the same installed area and at a higher overall efficiency compared to individual solar-thermal and PV panels installed separately. Hybrid PV-T technology provides a particularly promising solution when roof space is limited or when heat and electricity are required at the same … 156 Shigeki Hirasawa et al.: Thermal Performance and Cost to Produce 90°C-Hot Water of Solar Thermal Collector and Hybrid Photovoltaic Thermal (PVT) Collector Systems

PHOTOVOLTAIC/THERMAL HYBRID SYSTEMS FOR SOLAR ENERGY UTILIZATION John W. Andrews June 1981 thermal (PV/T) solar energy collectors was evaluated. The study was limited to flat-plate collectors since concentrating photovoltaic collectors require active cooling and thus are inherently PV/T collectors, the only decision being whether to use the thermal energy or to dump it. … Photovoltaic modules produce electricity, solar thermal collectors produce heat, and Solar One hybrid collectors produce both. By cooling down photovoltaic cells, our collectors can produce more electricity than conventional photovoltaic systems. The generated heat is used for hot water and to support the heating system.

A hybrid solar collector was designed to investigate the effects of combining two different solar collector techniques on the overall collector’s effectiveness. While most solar collectors focus only on one solar collection method, the small hybrid system uses a flat plate collector in conjunction International Conference “Passive and Low Energy Cooling 867 for the Built Environment”, May 2005, Santorini, Greece Study of a new concept of photovoltaic-thermal hybrid collector

Photovoltaic modules produce electricity, solar thermal collectors produce heat, and Solar One hybrid collectors produce both. By cooling down photovoltaic cells, our collectors can produce more electricity than conventional photovoltaic systems. The generated heat is used for hot water and to support the heating system. The performance of an integrated photovoltaic and thermal solar system compared to a conventional system was evaluated by Huang et al. [13] in that study, the efficiency of the proposed integrated photovoltaic and thermal solar system was higher than the conventional system.

provides a lot of thermal energy. Hybrid collector E-PVT2,0 is a technological progress in increasing efficiency of photovoltaic modules with a simultaneous exchange of a solar energy into thermal and electric energy. Advantages of a hybrid collector E-PVT2,0: - higher efficiency of production of electric energy in comparison to standard photovoltaic modules. - thermal part of a collector is Photovoltaic–thermal (PV-T) technology consists of a typical solar PV panel , coupled with a solar thermal collector installed on the back of the PV panel to pre-heat domestic hot water (DHW) or …

Solar energy can be converted directly into electric and thermal energy through photovoltaic cells and thermal collectors, respectively. However this conversion, in particular the photovoltaic, has a reduced efficiency. A solution proposed to increase this efficiency is with the hybrid solar From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Photovoltaic thermal hybrid systems, sometimes referred to as Hybrid PV/T systems, or PVT are systems that convert solar radiation into thermal …

A solar hybrid photovoltaic thermal (PVT) is a set of combined solar collector, which consists of a photovoltaic module (PV) for the conversion of electrical energy and solar plan for the high efficiency thermal energy conversion, in the same frame. Photovoltaic-Thermal Hybrid Solar System. Photovoltaic-thermal (PV-T) hybrid solar systems offer increased electricity production by cooling the PV panel, and using the removed thermal energy to heat water - all in the same footprint as a standard PV system.

PV spectrum: Crisostomo et. al, Beam splitting system for the development of a concentrating linear Fresnel solar hybrid PV/T collector, in ASME 2013 Summer Heat Transfer The double pass hybrid photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) solar air heater (DPHSAH) consisted of aluminum absorber plate of dimensions 1 m x 2 m ( W x L ) and thickness 2 mm. The height of the upper and lower channels was 5 cm (each).

A Cutting-Edge Hybrid Solar-Thermal-PV Collector from Turkey (BuildingGreen) In this scheme, water is circulated among the PV panels, making them more efficient by cooling them and then providing the home with hot water. RW3B.6.pdf Light, Energy and the Environment 2017 (E2, PV, SOLAR, SSL) Tolerance Analysis and Characterization of Hybrid Thermal-PV Solar Trough Prototype

In this study, different combinations of a photovoltaic thermal hybrid solar collector (PVT) and a multi-source heat pump for space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) production have been inves - … Performance of a Solar Heating System with Photovoltaic Thermal Hybrid Collectors and Heat Pump. Research output: Research - peer-review › Article in proceedings – Annual report year: 2017

photovoltaic thermal hybrid solar collector pdf

Photovoltaic modules produce electricity, solar thermal collectors produce heat, and Solar One hybrid collectors produce both. By cooling down photovoltaic cells, our collectors can produce more electricity than conventional photovoltaic systems. The generated heat is used for hot water and to support the heating system. This collector, referred to as a hybrid photovoltaic/thermal collector, or PVT collector, utilises the standard PV cell for conversion of sunlight into electricity, but also as a thermal absorbing surface. The cells are laminated directly onto a fin and tube type absorber commonly utilised to fabricate a solar thermal collector which contains the necessary means to circulate the coolant and

Non-imaging technologies for designing a hybrid

photovoltaic thermal hybrid solar collector pdf

An Experimental Comparison of two Solar Photovoltaic. Approach: Two photovoltaic thermal solar collectors were designed and fabricated. The first collector, known as spiral flow absorber collector, designed to generate hot water and electricity. The second collector, known as single pass rectangular tunnel absorber collector designed to generate hot air and electricity. Both absorber collectors were fixed underneath the flat plate single glazing, In this study, different combinations of a photovoltaic thermal hybrid solar collector (PVT) and a multi-source heat pump for space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) production have been inves - ….

APPLICATION ASPECTS OF HYBRID PV/T SOLAR SYSTEMS

Thermal Modeling and Life Prediction of Solar energy. SIMULATION OF THE TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION INSIDE A SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC THERMAL COLLECTOR thermodynamic model of a hybrid solar PV/T system was designed, and the parametric studies and annual transient simulations carried out proved that the most important variable to improve thermal performance is the photovoltaic module emittance [23]. Also, a thermo …, pv-t combines pv panels with solar thermal collectors Conventional PV panels convert up to 20 percent of solar energy into electricity. Most of the energy that is not transformed into electricity is converted into heat,.

The commonly used methods to harness solar energy are solar thermal and solar photovoltaic (PV). A new category photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) hybrid combines these two technologies, and achieves higher combined efficiency. The challenge is to keep the operating temperature of the PV low and at the A third type of system takes advantage of the best of both PV and solar thermal: a ‘‘hybrid’’ system. A hybrid system contains both a PV cell and a thermal absorber. In such a system, photons converted most efficiently by the PV cell (photons in the ‘‘PV band’’) are directed to the PV cell. Low-energy (long-wavelength) photons, which cannot be converted by the PV cell,and high

Solar PV-T is the hybrid system, combining solar PV and solar thermal system which provides both electricity and thermal energy simultaneously. A third type of system takes advantage of the best of both PV and solar thermal: a ‘‘hybrid’’ system. A hybrid system contains both a PV cell and a thermal absorber. In such a system, photons converted most efficiently by the PV cell (photons in the ‘‘PV band’’) are directed to the PV cell. Low-energy (long-wavelength) photons, which cannot be converted by the PV cell,and high

An Evacuated PV/Thermal Hybrid Collector with the Tube/XCPC design Lun Jiang Chuanjin Lan Yong Sin Kim yma5@ucmerced.edu rwinston@ucmerced.edu ABSTRACT The current challenge for PV/Thermal (PV/T) systems is the reduction of radiation heat loss. Compared to solar thermal selective coating, the solar cells cannot be used as an efficient thermal absorber due to their large … The hybrid photovoltaic and thermal (PVT) collector technology using water as the coolant has been seen as a solution for improving the energy performance. Through good thermal-contact between the thermal absorber and the PV module, both the electrical efficiency and the thermal efficiency can be raised. Fin performance of the heat exchanger is one crucial factor in achieving a high overall

A review of solar photovoltaic technologies Bhubaneswari Parida a , S. Iniyan b,∗ , Ranko Goic c a Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, … Photovoltaic thermal hybrid solar collectors, sometimes known as hybrid PV/T systems or PVT, are systems that convert solar radiation into thermal and electrical energy. These systems combine a solar cell, which converts sunlight into electricity, with asolar thermal

The hybrid photovoltaic and thermal (PVT) collector technology using water as the coolant has been seen as a solution for improving the energy performance. Through good thermal-contact between the thermal absorber and the PV module, both the electrical efficiency and the thermal efficiency can be raised. Fin performance of the heat exchanger is one crucial factor in achieving a high overall The 2nd World Solar Electric Buildings Conference: Sydney 8th-10th March 2000 1 HYBRID PV/THERMAL COLLECTORS Henrik SØRENSEN Esbensen Consulting Engineers, Vesterbrogade 124B, 1620 Copenhagen V, Denmark,

A third type of system takes advantage of the best of both PV and solar thermal: a ‘‘hybrid’’ system. A hybrid system contains both a PV cell and a thermal absorber. In such a system, photons converted most efficiently by the PV cell (photons in the ‘‘PV band’’) are directed to the PV cell. Low-energy (long-wavelength) photons, which cannot be converted by the PV cell,and high A solar hybrid photovoltaic thermal (PVT) is a set of combined solar collector, which consists of a photovoltaic module (PV) for the conversion of electrical energy and solar plan for the high efficiency thermal energy conversion, in the same frame.

2. Methodology To investigate the performance of solar PVT systems two solar photovoltaic thermal collectors were fabricated, as-sembled and installed alongside a commercial PV module. The system is a hybrid system in that solar energy can be converted to (a) electrical energy by utilizing photo- voltaic devices and (b) thermal energy which in turn can be

The hybrid photovoltaic and thermal (PVT) collector technology using water as the coolant has been seen as a solution for improving the energy performance. Through good thermal-contact between the thermal absorber and the PV module, both the electrical efficiency and the thermal efficiency can be raised. Fin performance of the heat exchanger is one crucial factor in achieving a high overall Solar energy can be converted directly into electric and thermal energy through photovoltaic cells and thermal collectors, respectively. However this conversion, in particular the photovoltaic, has a reduced efficiency. A solution proposed to increase this efficiency is with the hybrid solar

Hybrid solar system Photovoltaic/thermal collector Energy conversion Exergy analysis Technology review abstract A significant amount of research and development work on the photovoltaic/thermal (PVT) technology has been done since the 1970s. Many innovative systems and products have been put forward and their quality evaluated by academics and professionals. A range of theoretical models … Photovoltaic thermal hybrid solar collectors, also known as hybrid PV/T (PVT) or solar cogeneration systems, are power generation technologies that convert solar radiation into usable thermal and electrical energy. Such systems combine a solar cell, which converts sunlight into electricity, with a solar thermal collector, which captures the remaining energy and removes waste heat from the PV

A review of solar photovoltaic technologies Bhubaneswari Parida a , S. Iniyan b,∗ , Ranko Goic c a Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, … The heart in a PV-T hybrid system is a PhotoVoltaic/Thermal module, or PV-T module which is a combination of photovoltaic cells with a solar thermal collector, forming one device that converts solar radiation into electricity and heat simultaneously.

Solar Thermal torch.unsw.edu.au

photovoltaic thermal hybrid solar collector pdf

DESIGN ASPECTS OF HYBRID PVT/WATER SOLAR SYSTEMS. The heart in a PV-T hybrid system is a PhotoVoltaic/Thermal module, or PV-T module which is a combination of photovoltaic cells with a solar thermal collector, forming one device that converts solar radiation into electricity and heat simultaneously., Photovoltaic Thermal/Hybrid collectors are an emerging technology that combines PV and solar thermal collectors by producing heat and electricity simultaneously. In this paper, thermal and electrical performance of PV/T collectors are analyzed and presented for the climate of RAK, UAE. Thermal.

Investigation of Solar Hybrid Electric/Thermal System with. Abstract. The market of solar thermal and photovoltaic electricity generation is growing rapidly. New ideas on hybrid solar technology evolve for a wide range of applications, such as in buildings, processing plants, and agriculture., Y. Tripanagnostopoulos, “Aspects and improvements of hybrid photovoltaic/thermal solar energy systems,” Solar Energy, vol. 81, no. 9, pp. 1117–1131, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus.

Energy and Exergy Analysis of a Photovoltaic-Thermal

photovoltaic thermal hybrid solar collector pdf

MULTI-SOURCE HEAT PUMP COUPLED WITH A PHOTOVOLTAIC THERMAL. Performance of a Solar Heating System with Photovoltaic Thermal Hybrid Collectors and Heat Pump. Research output: Research - peer-review › Article in proceedings – Annual report year: 2017 hybrid Photovoltaic/Thermal (PV/T) solar systems are new solar devices, which can simultaneously provide electricity and heat, achieving therefore a higher energy.

photovoltaic thermal hybrid solar collector pdf

  • Photovoltaic Thermal (PV/T) Water Collector Experiment Study
  • EVALUATION OF FLAT-PLATE PHOTOVOLTAIC/THERMAL HYBRID

  • Abstract. The market of solar thermal and photovoltaic electricity generation is growing rapidly. New ideas on hybrid solar technology evolve for a wide range of applications, such as in buildings, processing plants, and agriculture. Hybrid solar system Photovoltaic/thermal collector Energy conversion Exergy analysis Technology review abstract A significant amount of research and development work on the photovoltaic/thermal (PVT) technology has been done since the 1970s. Many innovative systems and products have been put forward and their quality evaluated by academics and professionals. A range of theoretical models …

    The system is a hybrid system in that solar energy can be converted to (a) electrical energy by utilizing photo- voltaic devices and (b) thermal energy which in turn can be The hybrid photovoltaic and thermal (PVT) collector technology using water as the coolant has been seen as a solution for improving the energy performance. Through good thermal-contact between the thermal absorber and the PV module, both the electrical efficiency and the thermal efficiency can be raised. Fin performance of the heat exchanger is one crucial factor in achieving a high overall

    This collector, referred to as a hybrid photovoltaic/thermal collector, or PVT collector, utilises the standard PV cell for conversion of sunlight into electricity, but also as a thermal absorbing surface. The cells are laminated directly onto a fin and tube type absorber commonly utilised to fabricate a solar thermal collector which contains the necessary means to circulate the coolant and Solimpeks is a manufacturer of unique hybrid solar photovoltaic/solar thermal modules–combined solar electricity and solar hot water. In addition to offering the ‘best of both worlds’, Solimpeks’ modules benefit from a number of synergies possible only with the combination of the two technologies; namely, improved electricity yields

    Solar PV-T is the hybrid system, combining solar PV and solar thermal system which provides both electricity and thermal energy simultaneously. The commonly used methods to harness solar energy are solar thermal and solar photovoltaic (PV). A new category photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) hybrid combines these two technologies, and achieves higher combined efficiency. The challenge is to keep the operating temperature of the PV low and at the

    The double pass hybrid photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) solar air heater (DPHSAH) consisted of aluminum absorber plate of dimensions 1 m x 2 m ( W x L ) and thickness 2 mm. The height of the upper and lower channels was 5 cm (each). From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Photovoltaic thermal hybrid systems, sometimes referred to as Hybrid PV/T systems, or PVT are systems that convert solar radiation into thermal …

    hybrid Photovoltaic/Thermal (PV/T) solar systems are new solar devices, which can simultaneously provide electricity and heat, achieving therefore a higher energy Hybrid solar system Photovoltaic/thermal collector Energy conversion Exergy analysis Technology review abstract A significant amount of research and development work on the photovoltaic/thermal (PVT) technology has been done since the 1970s. Many innovative systems and products have been put forward and their quality evaluated by academics and professionals. A range of theoretical models …

    The hybrid solar thermal enhanced oil recovery system with an oxy-fuel combustor is an enhanced oil recovery system utilizing solar thermal enhanced oil recovery during the daytime and utilizing an oxy-fuel combustor in the nighttime. The performance of an integrated photovoltaic and thermal solar system compared to a conventional system was evaluated by Huang et al. [13] in that study, the efficiency of the proposed integrated photovoltaic and thermal solar system was higher than the conventional system.

    Approach: Two photovoltaic thermal solar collectors were designed and fabricated. The first collector, known as spiral flow absorber collector, designed to generate hot water and electricity. The second collector, known as single pass rectangular tunnel absorber collector designed to generate hot air and electricity. Both absorber collectors were fixed underneath the flat plate single glazing From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Photovoltaic thermal hybrid systems, sometimes referred to as Hybrid PV/T systems, or PVT are systems that convert solar radiation into thermal …

    A Cutting-Edge Hybrid Solar-Thermal-PV Collector from Turkey (BuildingGreen) In this scheme, water is circulated among the PV panels, making them more efficient by cooling them and then providing the home with hot water. Y. Tripanagnostopoulos, “Aspects and improvements of hybrid photovoltaic/thermal solar energy systems,” Solar Energy, vol. 81, no. 9, pp. 1117–1131, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus

    Photovoltaic solar panel for a hybrid PV/thermal system 2004-05-01 00:00:00 The hybrid PV–thermal system was studied, with the photovoltaic panel (PVP) area much smaller than that of the solar collector. thermal collector and 1m2 of PV would together yield 520kWh thermal and 72kWh electrical energy annually, whereas 2m 2 of PV thermal collector would yield 700kWh thermal and 132kWh electrical. 1 The higher average yield per m 2 is especially relevant if …

    Solar energy can be converted directly into electric and thermal energy through photovoltaic cells and thermal collectors, respectively. However this conversion, in particular the photovoltaic, has a reduced efficiency. A solution proposed to increase this efficiency is with the hybrid solar International Conference “Passive and Low Energy Cooling 867 for the Built Environment”, May 2005, Santorini, Greece Study of a new concept of photovoltaic-thermal hybrid collector